Abstract

  • Hattusa, the traditional capital of the Hittite Empire, was one of many largest and most influential cities within the historical world. It held important energy over the Anatolia area of Turkey and northern Syria.
  • The archeological web site of Hattusa has been acknowledged as a UNESCO World Heritage web site since 1986. It accommodates historical temples, royal residences, and fortifications, providing a glimpse into the wealthy historical past of the Hittite Empire.
  • Along with Hattusa, there are different Hittite websites value exploring within the area, resembling Yazilikaya, Alacahöyük, Kültepe, and Sapinuwa. These websites present additional perception into the huge extent and affect of the Hittite Empire.

Turkey boasts a very long history stretching to the very earliest times of permanent settlement in the region, such because the Neolithic site of Gobeki Tepe in eastern Turkey). It’s also residence to a number of the earliest recorded empires such because the Hittites. Right this moment guests can discover Hattusa — the traditional capital of the Hittite Empire.

Turkey is full of ancient discoveries from long-forgotten empires and civilizations, such because the 100 burial mounds of the Lydian Kingdom in western Turkey. Hattusa is one such spotlight of the traditional Hittite Empire and is nicely value visiting.

UPDATE: 2023/12/04 13:47 EST BY AARON SPRAY

Hattusa Is The Prime Hittite Archeological Web site Of A number of Websites

Hattusa was the capital of the Hittite Empire and was as soon as one of many largest cities of the traditional world, however there are different glorious Hittite websites to discover within the area. This text was up to date and expanded with extra details about different Hittite Archeological websites to discover round Hattusa.

The Significance & Historical past Of Hattusa & The Hittite Empire

Hattusa was one of many largest and most vital cities on the earth


An aerial view of the landscape of Hattusa, Hittite Empire
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An aerial view of the panorama of Hattusa, Hittite Empire

The Hittite Empire dates from the late Bronze Age (round 2,000 BC) and its former empire was the nice fortified metropolis of Hattusa. Hattusa wielded appreciable affect over the Anatolia area of Turkey and historical northern Syria.

At its peak, the Hittite kingdom stretched from the Aegean via Anatolia throughout northern Syria and to the Euphrates River.

  • Interval: Late Bronze Age (approx. 4,000 years in the past)
  • Standing: UNESCO Listed Since 1986

Hattusa has been UNESCO World Heritage Listed since 1986 and it’s value exploring for these with an curiosity in historical historical past. The archeological web site preserves historical temples, royal residences, and fortifications). See the wealthy ornamentation of Hattusa’s historical Lions Gate and Royal Gate.

It’s thought that Hattusa might have had a inhabitants of round 40,000-50,000 inhabitants.

  • Peak Inhabitants: 40,000-50,000

The Hittites moved their capital to Hattusa within the first half of the 2nd millennium BC (it was destroyed circa 1700 BC however later rebuilt). After an interregnum, Hattusa remained the capital of the Hittite Empire till it fell within the twelfth century BC as a part of the Bronze Age Collapse.


Hattusa Ancient City Gates
Picture by özhan Hazırlar on Pexels

Hattusa Historical Metropolis Gates

Hattusa was solely rediscovered in 1834. Whereas the Hittite Empire and civilization had been preserved in texts just like the Bible, students believed the Hittite Empire to have been a fantasy as there wasn’t any archeological proof. The invention of Hattusa modified every thing.

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The Historical Royal Clay Tablets, Partitions, & Different Archeological Discoveries At Hattusa

Hattusa has yielded a wealth of archeological discoveries from the Bronze Age providing a peek into historical past


Relief of the Twelve Gods in Yazilikaya Hattusa, ancient capital of the Hittite Civilization
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Aid of the Twelve Gods in Yazilikaya Hattusa, historical capital of the Hittite Civilization

A number of the most important finds embody the Bogazkoy Archive, an in depth royal archive of clay tablets. Historical clay tablets are sometimes just a little boring to learn as they continuously report the knowledge of historical accounting — who has paid what in tax and who’s owed what (accounting is, in any case, the origin of writing).

However these clay tablets additionally report historical forgotten prophecies, peace treaties, authorized codes, contracts, official correspondence, and different literature of the time.

One of many tablets speaks of the Battle of Kadesh between the Hittites and Egyptians underneath Ramases II, who built the massive Abu Simbel Temples, in 1259 or 1258.

  • Clay Tables: Approx. 30,000

Archeologists have additionally found some giant sculptures round 3,000-4,000 years outdated on the web site. The traditional homes have been constructed out of timber and dirt bricks and have lengthy since disappeared from the location.

The Hittite Empire existed because the age of horses and chariots had dawned within the area. The traditional metropolis was surrounded by an historical wall round 8 kilometers or 5 miles lengthy.

There are additionally the stays of different, older, partitions discovered via Hattusa. These partitions break up town into distinct districts and made town very closely fortified.

  • Historical Wall: 5 miles or 8 kilometers lengthy
  • Towers: Over 100 Towers
  • Gateways: 5 Gateways (3 Richly Embellished)

Archaeologists are nonetheless working to excavate the traditional websites and study the secrets and techniques of the long-lost civilization. Who is aware of what secrets and techniques and surprises are simply ready to be found?

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What To Know About Visiting Hattusa In Turkey Right this moment

Hattusa is likely one of the oldest archeological cities to see in Turkey in the present day

The Hattusa Archeological Site is positioned within the modern-day Turkish province of Corum within the heartland of the Anatolian area. The three key gates to go to are the Lions Gate, the Royal (or Kings) Gate, and the Sphinx Gate.

Go to the Higher Metropolis and see the longest identified Hittite hieroglyphic inscription on the traditional partitions (a number of the historical partitions have been reconstructed).


Hattusa city walls reconstructed & Archeological Site
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Hattusa metropolis partitions reconstructed & Archeological Web site

  • Admission Charge: 50 TL ($2.00 USD)
  • Opening Hours: 8:30 am to 7:00 pm (final entry 6:30 pm)
  • Days Open: Each day

The higher-preserved temples are discovered within the Decrease Metropolis — together with the Grand Temple courting from the thirteenth century BC.

Go north of Hattusa and see the traditional rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya, an historical open-air temple with two rooms hewn into the bed room. Right here guests can see a number of the most exceptional surviving examples of Hittite reduction artwork with gods, goddesses, and the Nice King Tudhaliya IV.

Dimension Of The Hittite Empire & Different Archeological Websites To Go to

The Hittite Empire had many cities and there are extra Hittite sights close to Hattusa value visiting

The Hittite Empire was one of many biggest empires of its period. It dominated a lot of Central and Southern Anatolia and far of modern-day Syria. Regardless of that, it has confirmed tough to affiliate archeological websites with the Hittites with certainty and solely a handful of websites have been linked with them definitively.

The Hittites have been centered on Hattusa and Nesa, though Oxford Academic lists 48 key Hittite websites. 4 different key Hittite websites to discover embody Yazilikaya, Alacahöyü, Kültepe (aka Nesa), and Sapinuwa.

Yazilikaya: A Hittite Ceremonial Middle

Yazilikaya is an historical Hittite rock sanctuary positioned solely round a mile to the northeast of the traditional capital of Hattusa. Right here guests can uncover historical Hittle chambers hewn into the bedrock and see the place historical Hittite ceremonies as soon as passed off.

  • Yazilikaya is famous for having a number of the finest samples of Hittite reduction artwork identified in the present day.

Alacahöyük: The First Hittite Capital

Alacahöyük was as soon as a thriving Hattian cultural heart through the Bronze Age. In a while, it was taken over by the Hittite. It then grew to become the primary capital of the Hittite Empire earlier than it was moved to Hattusa. Guests can see the spectacular ruins nonetheless there in the present day.


Example of ancient Cuneiform tablet
Picture by Bilge Şeyma Kütükoğlu on Pexels

Instance of historical Cuneiform pill

Kültepe or Neša: A Former Hittite Capital

Kültepe is positioned in central Turkey close to the trendy metropolis of Kayseri (not too removed from Cappadocia). It was an historical buying and selling settlement and can also be related to historical Assyria. The town traded gold, silver, copper, and different sources. It was known as Neša by the Hittites and was the capital for a time.

Sapinuwa: A Gold Mine For Cuneiform Tablets

Sapinuwa was an vital Hittite navy and non secular heart (positioned between Hattusa and Alacahoyuk). It was positioned alongside historical commerce routes and a few Hittite kings had their royal residences there for some time. The location was solely recognized in 1989 and a few 4,000 historical tablets and pill fragments have been discovered there.

There’s a lot to see in and round Hattusa — this area is greater than value a go to!



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